Glossary of MoPub Terms
Monetizing with MoPub: ad mediation, ad monetization, ad server, app store URL, cache, casual game, cross-promotion, demand, direct deals, failover, game bundle, header bidding, ILRD, in-app advertising, in-app bidding, in-app purchasing mediation stack, mobile attribution, network allocation, network mediation, priority, traffic, UA, waterfall
Ad exchanges function as digital marketplaces; they facilitate the buying and selling of ad space in a marketplace environment. This is where automated real-time (OpenRTB) auctions are hosted, connecting publishers with buyers (advertisers, agencies, and ad networks) who want to bid on their ad inventory.
An app monetization solution that manages and optimizes multiple ad networks through a single platform.
Publishers generating revenue from partner advertisers by allowing the exposure of their users to the partners’ ads.
This is the number of times an app requests an ad to load.
Ad management technology that allows a publisher to serve ads within their apps.
Ad placement in a mobile app used to display ads to the app users in order to monetize traffic.
ad unit ID
A MoPub-specific ID that provides a unique serial number for each ad unit. This ID can be found in the URL (for example,
https://app.mopub.com/ad-unit?key=a75175efa8bd42ae971d4c585e2d9218) and in the Apps tab’s Ad Unit page, by clicking Edit ad unit → View code integration.
Snippet of code that bridges the communication between the MoPub SDK and other SDKs. Find the mediation adapter for MoPub-supported networks here. Implementation is as easy as copying the scripts in your Gradle/Cocoapods projects.
Advanced Bidding is MoPub’s re-imagination of header bidding adapted to the mobile app ecosystem. AB replaces the traditional linear waterfall with simultaneous real-time bidding, increasing efficiency. Visit the Advanced Bidding section of our website, and read our user documentation about Advanced Bidding here.
Android Studio is the official integrated development environment (IDE) for Google’s Android operating system, built on JetBrains’ IntelliJ IDEA software and designed specifically for Android development. It is available for download on Windows, macOS, and Linux-based operating systems. To learn how to get device logs through Android Studio, refer to our instructions.
An application; in the context of the MoPub UI, an app is downloaded by a user to a mobile device.
An initiative from the Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB) to prevent fraud,
app-ads.txt is a text file that app publishers host on their server listing authorized sellers of their inventory. Learn more about the importance of app-ads.txt and how publishers can adopt it here.
app churn rate
The rate of attrition: the percentage of users who stop using an app within a given time period.
App store optimization (ASO)
App store optimization (ASO) is the process of optimizing mobile apps to rank higher in an app store’s search results.
app store URL
A link that redirects to the app page of an app published in the app store.
Average revenue per daily active user (ARPDAU) is the total revenue generated in a given day, evenly divided by the total users logged into the app.
Average revenue per user (ARPU) is calculated as total revenue generated in a day, evenly divided by the total number of the app’s unique users.
Average revenue per paying user (ARPPU) is the total revenue generated in a day, evenly divided by the number of paying users, who spent money either by paying to download the app or through in-app spending.
This is the number of times any demand source (or ad source) is called to fill an ad request. A given ad request can attempt multiple ad sources. For example, an ad unit’s waterfall may have three networks. An app makes an ad request and Network 1 is ‘attempted’ for an ad, but they have no ad to serve. Network 2 is attempted for an ad and is able to fill the request. In this scenario, there was 1 ad request, 2 network attempts, and 1 impression.
Auto CPM automates the task of updating network CPMs in the ad mediation waterfall to accurately reflect the CPM that your demand sources are paying for your ad inventory. Find more information here.
average session duration
The average amount of time spent by users in a given app.
An ad that remains on screen, within the app’s layout, while the user is interacting with an app. Banner ads typically include a combination of static or animated images and text.
A DSP uses a bidder seat on an ad exchange to participate in a real-time bidding (RTB) marketplace. Similar to seats on equities exchanges, bidder seats signify a direct relationship between advertisers and the ad exchange, and a single seat can represent multiple media buyers. A bid response to a bid request in an auction contains the buyer’s Seat ID, along with other essential bidding information.
A bundle identifier uniquely identifies an application in the apps ecosystem. This data is important and is used by DSPs to validate the authenticity of an app. MoPub extracts this information from the app store URL, provided that it is properly entered in the MoPub UI.
Process of pre-loading and storing ads in a cache in order to have them ready to display to a user.
Campaign optimization is the process of improving on and refining your marketing campaign to augment the impact of your advertisement(s). Looking at factors such as past performance and modeling future outcomes, you can better determine how to optimize your campaigns in the way of spend, creatives, etc. For example, if you understand that certain keywords or creatives receive a higher clickthrough rate, then you can understand how to optimize those elements of your campaign.
A game that makes it easy for users to get started, thanks to its simple gameplay and rules. A hyper-casual game is one where a user can jump right in.
Charles Proxy is an HTTP/HTTPS traffic viewer you can use to view the traffic between your device and the Internet. Because the MoPub SDK uses HTTP/HTTPS to request and receive ads, you can use Charles for debugging, and to test apps’ ad requests, responses, and creative-level information. Learn more about it here.
CocoaPods is a library dependency management tool for OS X and iOS applications. With CocoaPods, you can define your dependencies, called pods, and manage their versions easily over time and across development environments. To integrate MoPub through CocoaPods, refer to our instructions.
The percent of app users who saw an ad and took a designated action (such as clicking on an ad or watching a video to completion).
The Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) is a law created to protect the privacy of children under the age of 13. The Act was passed by the U.S. Congress in 1998 and took effect in April 2000. COPPA is managed by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). Only COPPA-compliant apps can monetize through MoPub. Find more information in our Supply Partners Policies.
The core loop is the main activity a player will engage in, and the structure around which the game is designed. This generally consists of three components: action, reward, and progress.
The cost per acquisition (CPA) is the average cost to gain a new user.
The cost per click (CPC) is the price DSPs pay for one click (usually a click on an ad) in a CPC campaign.
The cost per completed view (CPCV) measures how much an advertiser spends per individual who watches a video ad from beginning to end.
The cost per engagement (CPE) measures how much an advertiser spends per individual who interacts with an ad in some way. This can be an engagement such as a click, or an interaction with a playable ad.
The cost per install (CPI) measures how much an advertiser spends on average to drive app installs.
Cost per mille (CPM) is the cost per thousand impressions. It is a common fee structure and denotes the price a DSP pays upon the thousandth impression.
The cost per view measures how much an advertiser spends per individual who watches any portion of a video ad.
Creative optimization for programmatic advertising is the process of incorporating the top performing creatives in campaigns by testing and iterating creatives and ad formats to achieve your user acquisition goals.
A user acquisition strategy in which publishers use their own in-app ad inventory to promote their other apps.
CTR is another way of denoting “clickthrough rate.” Clickthrough rate refers to the number of clicks your ad gets divided by the number of times your ad is shown. This metric can be helpful for UA managers looking to determine how well their ads are performing.
A cohort is a group of users who share certain characteristics that can be used to identify and target segments of your customer set.
Conversion rate (CVR)
Conversion rate, or CVR, is defined as the average number of conversions your ad receives per each interaction, calculated by dividing the total number of conversions by the number of total ad interactions in a given time period.
Currency is an in-game fund used by the player to access the title’s economy. Most games will make use of at least one form of currency to aid in progression (e.g. to upgrade a player character), and many games will use multiple currencies, both “soft” (earned regularly via gameplay) and “hard” (earned predominantly or exclusively with real money via in-app purchases).
Custom events support ad network SDKs for networks not listed on our Supported Mediation Partners. MoPub discourages using non-supported network adapters and does not provide testing or technical support for issues arising from their use.
Daily average users (DAU) is the number of unique devices that create one or more ad requests broken down by day (MoPub records all information in UTC time).
Deep-links are a way of navigating between apps. They direct users to a specific place within an app. MoPub’s Deep Link+ provides a premium user experience while enabling advertisers to scale retargeting campaigns with accurate analytics. This deep-linking format enables buyers to submit a primary URL, fallback URL, primary tracking URL, and fallback tracking URL.
Different ad sources willing to pay to access a given in-app inventory.
Campaigns reflecting deals that are typically closed directly with agencies and advertisers. They can be trafficked through MoPub by creating an order and then a Guaranteed Line Item through the Orders tab.
Demand-side platforms (DSPs) are the companies that advertisers and agencies use to buy ad inventory programmatically. DSPs use data and artificial intelligence to determine which inventory to bid for on behalf of the buyer. DSPs use a bidder seat to bid on impressions in the exchange.
A game’s (virtual) economy assigns value to in-game items, behaviors, and rewards. A well-designed economy is critical and encourages players to engage with every aspect of a game. The in-game economy encourages continued engagement by ascribing clear value to performance and drives player progression with upgrades to capabilities.
Effective Cost per Mille (eCPM) is calculated as (total earnings / total number of impressions) X 1000, regardless of what buying method is being used (fixed price, CPM, CPC, CPA or CPO). For example, CPI campaigns, which pay only on install, must be converted to the same terms for an apples-to-apples comparison. The main difference between CPM and eCPM is the data you use to calculate it.
The percent of active users in an app who interact with an ad.
Experience points (XP)
Experience points (XP) are units of measurement used in role-playing games (RPGs) to quantify a player character’s life experience and progression through the game.
F2P (free-to-play) games
Free-to-play (F2P) games are ad-supported games in which players can take part in mobile gameplay more easily. The barrier to entry is low, which not only broadens the audiences viewing your ads, but also gives F2P gamers a reason to view your in-app ads in full when they’re connected to something useful in the game or app.
Failover is the practice of passing the impression opportunity back to be filled by another eligible demand source in the case of no fill. Within the context of MoPub a demand source will failover back to MoPub for proper mediation based on the waterfall setup for the ad unit.
MoPub fill rate represents how often ad requests result in fills, where fills (for example, ‘successful loads’) is the total number of creatives that successfully loaded on the device.
In the context of the MoPub UI, ad formats are defined by the size and creative attributes of the ad space in your app. Ad formats accepted by MoPub are: banners, medium rectangles, native, interstitial (static, playables, and video), and rewarded ad.
In the “freemium” model, the game itself is free to play and additional premium features can be accessed via in-app purchases. In-app purchases might include additional lives, additional time, unlockable characters, levels, extra in-app currency, or even to remove ads entirely.
Capping refers to restricting the number of times, or frequency, a specific visitor to an app is shown a particular ad. You can set frequency capping at the ad unit level or at the line item level in the MoPub UI.
When two or more gaming apps are downloadable through a single purchase.
The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is a legal framework that sets guidelines for the collection and processing of personal information of individuals within the European Union (EU). GDPR came into effect across the EU on May 25, 2018. To find more on MoPub’s approach to GDPR check our FAQ and the publisher SDK integration guides for Android or iOS.
If MoPub detects that a user opened a given application for the first time in the European Economic Area, United Kingdom, or Switzerland, as determined by the user’s truncated IP address, we will consider GDPR applying to that user for the lifetime of that application, meaning that MoPub requires the user’s consent before serving personalized ads.
Header bidding, a term traditionally used in desktop advertising, enables publishers to offer inventory to multiple ad exchanges simultaneously in a unified auction, before making calls to their ad servers. MoPub’s equivalent of header bidding for the in-app world is Advanced Bidding.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) elements are represented by tags. HTML tags label pieces of content in ads.
HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a request–response protocol that allows transfer of data back and forth between two machines, generally a client and a server.
The identifier for advertising (IDFA) is a device identifier assigned by Apple to a user’s iOS device, and consistent across all apps on the user’s device.
The identifier for vendors (IDFV) is an iOS device identifier assigned to all apps by a developer, and consistent only across apps on the device that are from the same developer.
Impression-level revenue data (ILRD) enables publishers to process granular data. MoPub provides user ad revenue information associated with each impression, as well as information about which demand source was able to fill and show an ad. Publishers then have the flexibility to augment the impression event data with their own proprietary data, and to either process the data directly, or pass it to a third-party analytics provider. Learn more about ILRD here.
Approach for counting impressions based on triggered events. MoPub’s counts an event as an impression when at least one pixel is on screen.
A performance metric, this is the number of times an ad shows on screen.
The mobile app version of header bidding, which enables app publishers to offer inventory to multiple ad networks and exchanges simultaneously in a unified auction, replacing the traditional waterfall setup. MoPub’s in-app bidding solution is called Advanced Bidding.
The purchase of products or services from within an app. Examples include in-game currency, virtual or real-world items, or subscriptions.
Incrementality is the degree to which ad spend impacts conversion rate (the measure of lift that advertising spend provides to the conversion rate.)
At its simplest level, incrementality testing is an approach to measuring the impact of advertising by looking at a treatment group (those who saw the ad campaign) vs. a control or holdback group (those who did not) in order to determine relative lift, or incrementality. To achieve this, app marketers typically take a user or device ID pool and split it into treatment and control groups, with the goal of measuring a specific outcome.
Install Rate (IR)
When running your mobile ad campaign, the install rate refers to the number of clicks needed before the app is installed. This metric is closely linked to CPI (cost per install.)
Install rate per one thousand impressions (IPM)
IPM is a metric that helps paint a clearer picture of the full user journey on the path to installs. IPM is calculated by taking the total number of installs and dividing that by one thousand impressions. This metric is particularly helpful in relation to creative optimization.
An interstitial ad is a fullscreen static, video, or rich media ad that covers the interface of its host app. Interstitial ads are typically displayed at natural transition points in the flow of an app, such as between activities or during the pause between levels in a game. The ad is self-contained within its own window, not within the app’s layout.
invalid traffic (IVT)
Invalid traffic (IVT) is any activity that doesn’t come from a real user with genuine interest. It can include fraudulent impressions, clicks, or app downloads caused by faulty ad implementations.
Keywords contain user- or app-level information that can be passed through the SDK for advanced targeting in line items. Learn more about them here.
Kotlin is a cross-platform, statically typed, general-purpose programming language with type inference. It interoperates fully with Java, is officially supported by Google for mobile development on Android, and is included as an alternative to the standard Java compiler.
Type of performance metric. Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) measure the success of a particular activity in a given context.
Line items enable publishers to create campaigns targeting specific ad units and ad sources. Line Items can be set at any priority level to allow publishers prioritize specific campaigns. Line items offer advanced targeting capabilities. Line item types include Marketplace, Guaranteed (usually for direct deals), Backfill and Network.
Lookalike audiences are a way to reach new people who are likely to be interested in your business because they’re similar to your best existing customers.
A user’s lifetime value (LTV) is the amount of revenue a user brings in divided by their entire time using the app.
MoPub Marketplace is our real-time bidding (RTB) exchange, which gives publishers access to an additional revenue source through a competitive auction with complete transparency and control. MoPub’s Marketplace will only win if it is able to beat the highest performing ad network that has an available ad. Marketplace increases the quantity of potential bidders for your impressions, without having to include additional SDKs. Learn more here. In the MoPub UI, the Marketplace tab enables publishers to manage Marketplace settings.
Monthly average users (MAU) is the number of unique devices that create one or more ad requests, broken down by month (MoPub records all information in UTC time).
The list of demand sources included in a waterfall targeted to a specific ad unit. The ad networks in the stack are ranked by priority level first, then CPM (within that priority). Through the waterfall process, an ad request will “attempt,” or ask each demand source for an ad to serve, and continue down the waterfall until an impressions is served.
Put simply, a metagame refers to the progression system that wraps around your core gameplay, utilizing the game’s economy and feeding back into the game’s core actions.
MoAnalytics is a data analytics tool reserved for managed publishers. Learn about it here.
The process of tracking and crediting a partner, media source, or campaign with a conversion or specific user action.
MoPub reports track performance based on MoPub data and include Marketplace revenue. Find more information here.
MoPub Sample App
The MoPub Sample App is for anyone who has a stake in how a creative or tag functions in a MoPub-integrated app, or who wants to use a reference for implementation to troubleshoot possible MoPub-SDK integration issues. Find Android and iOS versions here and Unity here.
Mobile Rich Media Ad Interface Definitions (MRAID) is a framework for mobile advertisers and publishers that allows rich media ad creatives to run across all compliant devices and applications. It is a standard developed by the Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB) in late 2011. MRAID is designed for publishers who want to do direct sales with more engaging ads as well as those who want to work with ad networks that support rich media creatives.
A static or video ad that appears naturally within the app’s content. The ad experience follows the natural form and function of the app’s user experience. Check out MoPub’s Native Preview Tool to see how native ads can look in real apps.
An ad network connects advertisers to apps in order to serve ads. Networks do not bid in real time, with the exception of those who are participating in Advanced Bidding. Publishers can manage mediated networks in the Networks tab.
This feature can be used to dictate the percentage of ad requests a network should receive daily.
The cost per thousand impressions for a network is the average CPM for a given network or network line item. In the MoPub UI, the Network eCPM is not a price floor; it is an indicator used to rank the order of the calls in the waterfall. The value should be updated regularly (manually or via Auto CPM) to reflect the average eCPM the network is paying for that ad unit. See also eCPM.
Network mediation enables MoPub publishers to make ad requests to multiple ad networks to maximize revenue and increase fill rate. MoPub supports client-side network mediation integrations. We encourage publishers to mediate networks included in the list of supported mediation partners.
Network reports track performance data from the supported networks in this list, and include network revenue data. Note that this data is directly pulled from the network.
Actions taken in order to improve the performance of an ad unit, app, or account. The goal is usually to boost performance and reduce inefficiencies, such as latency.
An option to manage your inventory by creating line items. In MoPub, an order is a grouping of line items.
Paying user conversion rate (PU CR)
The paying user conversion rate (PU CR) is calculated by dividing the number of users that have converted to paying users by the number of total users you’ve acquired.
A rich media ad, typically for a gaming app, that allows a user to play a demo or understand the basic game mechanics within the ad itself.
A private marketplace (PMP) is a subset of a real-time bidding exchange with a limited set of advertisers and publishers who have agreed to exclusive terms. Buyers participating in the PMP are given the first look at participating publishers’ inventory before other demand sources, which may include ad networks and other demand partners on the open MoPub Marketplace.
The premium mobile monetization model involves apps that are sold at a specific price point. Premium games cost money to download, but they do not ask for additional payments via in-app purchases.
Minimum bid that you are willing to accept for the DSPs’ to access to your inventory. We recommend that you set your Marketplace price floors to be lower than your lowest network CPM to maximize Marketplace competition and yield.
System to prioritize demand source by ranked groups within the waterfall. There are 16 priorities within the MoPub waterfall, with 1 being the highest and 16, the lowest. If the inventory isn’t sold in the first priority sent, it will failover to the following priority until it fills.
ProGuard is a free Java class file shrinker, optimizer, obfuscator, and preverifier. It detects and removes unused classes, fields, methods, and attributes. It optimizes bytecode and removes unused instructions. You can use it to integrate MoPub. Learn more here.
The refresh rate interval is the number of seconds an ad will display on screen before a subsequent ad request is made for a new ad. For example, if you set a refresh interval of 30 seconds, the next ad request will occur 30 seconds later.
Performance data consolidated in offline spreadsheets.
The length of time or the number of days a user stays active with an app.
Retargeting works by keeping track of people who visit your site and displaying your retargeting ads to them as they visit other sites online.
Retention Rate (RR)
Your retention rate will tell you the percentage of users who continue to use your app after installing it. It’s calculated by dividing daily active users (DAU) by the total number of app installs.
Total amount of earnings generated from in-app advertising activity. Recommendation: Use offline reports, where data has been consolidated, to track your revenue.
An ad format in which a user is rewarded after successful completion of a video ad. The reward is typically in-game virtual currency (gold, coins, power-ups, extra lives, etc.).
Return on ad spend (ROAS) is the ratio of revenue generated to advertising spend. Used to help measure the efficiency of an ad campaign.
Return on investment (ROI) is the ratio of revenue generated to full campaign expenses. This can include labor costs.
With real-time bidding (RTB), in-app inventory is bought and sold in a live auction system where advertisers bid on each impression in real time the moment you request an ad.
The MoPub Sample App is for anyone who has a stake in how a creative or tag functions in a MoPub-integrated app, or who wants to use a reference for implementation to troubleshoot possible MoPub-SDK integration issues. Find Android and iOS versions here and Unity here.
The proportion of impressions to ad requests. Show rate represents how often ad requests result in impressions. We use it with inventory context dimensions, such as ad unit, app, format, etc. Show rate is calculated as impressions divided by requests.
The singleton method enables you to show the same ad impression as users navigate through various screens of your app. It involves creating an object with the MoPub ad view, allocating the object to the active view, and then de-allocating it and reallocating it to each view as the user navigates within the app. Find more information in our documentation.
Supply-side platforms (SSPs) provide a way for publishers to sell their inventory on exchanges; they’re the inverse of DSPs. MoPub is an SSP.
Subscription models give users the ability to access your game for a recurring (weekly, monthly, or annual) fee. This works particularly well when you consistently have new game features or content to unveil.
Supply Path Optimization (SPO)
Supply path optimization (SPO) is about simplifying the supply chain between advertisers and publishers by cutting out unnecessary intermediaries. It gives media buyers the ability to bid on and win inventory at the most reasonable price, while it lets publishers maximize their revenue over the long run.
A MoPub-supported network is a network with a supported SDK integration. Review the list of supported networks here. Make sure to work with the supported instance when integrating a network included in the list.
Swift is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm, compiled programming language developed by Apple Inc. for iOS, macOS, watchOS, tvOS, Linux, and z/OS. Swift is designed to work with Apple’s Cocoa and Cocoa Touch frameworks and the large body of existing Objective-C code written for Apple products.
App traffic is the amount of data sent and received by users in the app. App traffic is measured through app activity, such as opening the app, number of sessions, session duration, and ad requests.
User acquisition (UA) is the process of gaining more users for an app via organic methods, such as app store optimization (ASO), paid advertising efforts, or both.
User interface provided by MoPub for accessing the MoPub Services.
The number of unique devices that create one or more ad requests. Note that this figure doesn’t include ‘Do Not Track’ users.
Unity is a cross-platform real-time engine developed by Unity Technologies. It is an OS X-exclusive game engine.
The degree to which users interact with an app. This can be analyzed through different metrics, including daily active users (DAU), average session length, etc.
valid store URL
A valid store Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is a complete web address used to find a particular app page in the app store. MoPub requires publishers to have a valid store URL (for published apps) to obtain Marketplace approval. Find more information on Marketplace approval here.
Video Ad Serving Template (VAST) is a specification released by the Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB) that sets a standard for communication requirements between ad servers and video players. It is a data structure declared using XML. Find more information on how to set up Direct VAST campaigns on MoPub here.
This section contains legacy information. Starting from MoPub 5.13.0, the Moat and IAS viewability SDKs have been removed. Viewability tracking logic is no longer operational via these proprietary SDKs.
System to organize demand source calls in order to fill an ad unit’s inventory. Through the waterfall process, an ad request attempts, or asks, each demand source for an ad to serve, and continues down the waterfall until an impression is served.
The integrated development environment (IDE) from Apple that is used to create, compile, and test Mac OS X and iOS (iPhone/iPad/iPod) applications. Refer to our instructions for integrating MoPub through XCode.
Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that represents structured data in a way that is both human-readable and machine-readable. A popular alternative to JSON, XML is used primarily to transfer data between two machines.
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Last updated March 30, 2021
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