Glossary of MoPub Terms

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A

ad exchange

Ad exchanges function as digital marketplaces; they facilitate the buying and selling of ad space in a marketplace environment. This is where automated real-time (OpenRTB) auctions are hosted, connecting publishers with buyers (advertisers, agencies, and ad networks) who want to bid on their ad inventory.

ad mediation

An app monetization solution that manages and optimizes multiple ad networks through a single platform.

ad monetization

Publishers generating revenue from partner advertisers by allowing the exposure of their users to the partners’ ads.

ad request

This is the number of times an app requests an ad to load.

ad server

Ad management technology that allows a publisher to serve ads within their apps.

ad unit

Ad placement in a mobile app used to display ads to the app users in order to monetize traffic.

ad unit ID

A MoPub-specific ID that provides a unique serial number for each ad unit. This ID can be found in the URL (for example, https://app.mopub.com/ad-unit?key=a75175efa8bd42ae971d4c585e2d9218) and in the Apps tab’s Ad Unit page, by clicking Edit ad unit → View code integration.

adapter

Snippet of code that bridges the communication between the MoPub SDK and other SDKs. Find the adapters for MoPub-supported networks here. Implementation is as easy as copying the scripts in your Gradle/Cocoapods projects.

Advanced Bidding

Advanced Bidding is MoPub’s re-imagination of header bidding adapted to the mobile app ecosystem. AB replaces the traditional linear waterfall with simultaneous real-time bidding, increasing efficiency. Visit the Advanced Bidding section of our website, and read our user documentation about Advanced Bidding here.

Android Studio

Android Studio is the official integrated development environment (IDE) for Google’s Android operating system, built on JetBrains’ IntelliJ IDEA software and designed specifically for Android development. It is available for download on Windows, macOS, and Linux-based operating systems. To learn how to get device logs through Android Studio, refer to our instructions.

app

An application; in the context of the MoPub UI, an app is downloaded by a user to a mobile device.

app-ads.txt

An initiative from the Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB) to prevent fraud, app-ads.txt is a text file that app publishers host on their server listing authorized sellers of their inventory. Learn more about the importance of app-ads.txt and how publishers can adopt it here.

app churn rate

The rate of attrition: the percentage of users who stop using an app within a given time period.

app store URL

A link that redirects to the app page of an app published in the app store.

ARPDAU

Average revenue per daily active user (ARPDAU) is the total revenue generated in a given day, evenly divided by the total users logged into the app.

ARPU

Average revenue per user (ARPU) is calculated as total revenue generated in a day, evenly divided by the total number of the app’s unique users.

ARPPU

Average revenue per paying user (ARPPU) is the total revenue generated in a day, evenly divided by the number of paying users, who spent money either by paying to download the app or through in-app spending.

attempts

This is the number of times any demand source (or ad source) is called to fill an ad request. A given ad request can attempt multiple ad sources. For example, an ad unit’s waterfall may have three networks. An app makes an ad request and Network 1 is ‘attempted’ for an ad, but they have no ad to serve. Network 2 is attempted for an ad and is able to fill the request. In this scenario, there was 1 ad request, 2 network attempts, and 1 impression.

Auto CPM

Auto CPM automates the task of updating network CPMs in the ad mediation waterfall to accurately reflect the CPM that your demand sources are paying for your ad inventory. Find more information here.

average session duration

The average amount of time spent by users in a given app.

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B

An ad that remains on screen, within the app’s layout, while the user is interacting with an app. Banner ads typically include a combination of static or animated images and text.

bid request

The call sent from the real-time bidding exchange to the DSP, providing information about the platform, time of impression, and the keys to the user data.

bid response

A DSP’s response to a bid request sent back to the ad exchange, which includes the bidder’s price and creative ID.

bidder seat

A DSP uses a bidder seat on an ad exchange to participate in a real-time bidding (RTB) marketplace. Similar to seats on equities exchanges, bidder seats signify a direct relationship between advertisers and the ad exchange, and a single seat can represent multiple media buyers. A bid response to a bid request in an auction contains the buyer’s Seat ID, along with other essential bidding information.

bundle ID

A bundle identifier uniquely identifies an application in the apps ecosystem. This data is important and is used by DSPs to validate the authenticity of an app. MoPub extracts this information from the app store URL, provided that it is properly entered in the MoPub UI.

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C

cache

Process of pre-loading and storing ads in a cache in order to have them ready to display to a user.

casual game

A game that makes it easy for users to get started, thanks to its simple gameplay and rules. A hyper-casual game is one where a user can jump right in.

Charles log

Charles Proxy is an HTTP/HTTPS traffic viewer you can use to view the traffic between your device and the Internet. Because the MoPub SDK uses HTTP/HTTPS to request and receive ads, you can use Charles for debugging, and to test apps’ ad requests, responses, and creative-level information. Learn more about it here.

CocoaPods

CocoaPods is a library dependency management tool for OS X and iOS applications. With CocoaPods, you can define your dependencies, called pods, and manage their versions easily over time and across development environments. To integrate MoPub through CocoaPods, refer to our instructions.

conversion rate

The percent of app users who saw an ad and took a designated action (such as clicking on an ad or watching a video to completion).

COPPA

The Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) is a law created to protect the privacy of children under the age of 13. The Act was passed by the U.S. Congress in 1998 and took effect in April 2000. COPPA is managed by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). Only COPPA-compliant apps can monetize through MoPub. Find more information in our Supply Partners Policies.

CPA

The cost per acquisition (CPA) is the average cost to gain a new user.

CPC

The cost per click (CPC) is the price DSPs pay for one click (usually a click on an ad) in a CPC campaign.

CPCV

The cost per completed view (CPCV) measures how much an advertiser spends per individual who watches a video ad from beginning to end.

CPE

The cost per engagement (CPE) measures how much an advertiser spends per individual who interacts with an ad in some way. This can be an engagement such as a click, or an interaction with a playable ad.

CPI

The cost per install (CPI) measures how much an advertiser spends on average to drive app installs.

CPM

Cost per mille (CPM) is the cost per thousand impressions. It is a common fee structure and denotes the price a DSP pays upon the thousandth impression.

CPV

The cost per view measures how much an advertiser spends per individual who watches any portion of a video ad.

cross-promotion

A user acquisition strategy in which publishers use their own in-app ad inventory to promote their other apps.

CTR

Click-through rate (CTR) is the ratio of clicks over impressions.

custom event

Custom events support ad network SDKs for networks not listed on our Supported Mediation Partners. MoPub discourages using non-supported network adapters and does not provide testing or technical support for issues arising from their use.

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D

DAU

Daily average users (DAU) is the number of unique devices that create one or more ad requests broken down by day (MoPub records all information in UTC time).

deep-linking

Deep-links are a way of navigating between apps. They direct users to a specific place within an app. MoPub’s Deep Link+ provides a premium user experience while enabling advertisers to scale retargeting campaigns with accurate analytics. This deep-linking format enables buyers to submit a primary URL, fallback URL, primary tracking URL, and fallback tracking URL.

demand

Different ad sources willing to pay to access a given in-app inventory.

device log

Device logs contain events logged by the SDK, ad server, and network adapter. Device logs may contain information about the cause of some errors. Learn more about device logs on Android or iOS.

direct deals

Campaigns reflecting deals that are typically closed directly with agencies and advertisers. They can be trafficked through MoPub by creating an order and then a Guaranteed Line Item through the Orders tab.

DSP

Demand-side platforms (DSPs) are the companies that advertisers and agencies use to buy ad inventory programmatically. DSPs use data and artificial intelligence to determine which inventory to bid for on behalf of the buyer. DSPs use a bidder seat to bid on impressions in the exchange.

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E

eCPM

Effective Cost per Mille (eCPM) is calculated as (total earnings / total number of impressions) X 1000, regardless of what buying method is being used (fixed price, CPM, CPC, CPA or CPO). For example, CPI campaigns, which pay only on install, must be converted to the same terms for an apples-to-apples comparison. The main difference between CPM and eCPM is the data you use to calculate it.

engagement rate

The percent of active users in an app who interact with an ad.

exchange

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F

failover

Failover is the practice of passing the impression opportunity back to be filled by another eligible demand source in the case of no fill. Within the context of MoPub a demand source will failover back to MoPub for proper mediation based on the waterfall setup for the ad unit.

fill rate

MoPub fill rate refers to the number of impressions divided by the number of ad requests. Note that this often differs from network fill rates, because networks use different formulas to calculate fill rate.

format

In the context of the MoPub UI, ad formats are defined by the size and creative attributes of the ad space in your app. Ad formats accepted by MoPub are: banners, medium rectangles, native, native video, interstitial (static, playables, and video), and rewarded video.

frequency capping

Capping refers to restricting the number of times, or frequency, a specific visitor to an app is shown a particular ad. You can set frequency capping at the ad unit level or at the line item level in the MoPub UI.

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G

game bundle

When two or more gaming apps are downloadable through a single purchase.

GDPR

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is a legal framework that sets guidelines for the collection and processing of personal information of individuals within the European Union (EU). GDPR came into effect across the EU on May 25, 2018. To find more on MoPub’s approach to GDPR check our FAQ and the publisher SDK integration guides for Android or iOS.

GDPR Applies

If MoPub detects that a user opened a given application for the first time in the European Economic Area, United Kingdom, or Switzerland, as determined by the user’s truncated IP address, we will consider GDPR applying to that user for the lifetime of that application, meaning that MoPub requires the user’s consent before serving personalized ads.

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H

header bidding

Header bidding, a term traditionally used in desktop advertising, enables publishers to offer inventory to multiple ad exchanges simultaneously in a unified auction, before making calls to their ad servers. MoPub’s equivalent of header bidding for the in-app world is Advanced Bidding.

HTML tag

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) elements are represented by tags. HTML tags label pieces of content in ads.

HTTP

HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a request–response protocol that allows transfer of data back and forth between two machines, generally a client and a server.

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I

IAB

Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB) is an organization that sets industry standards for digital advertising organizations. For example, the IAB released the app-ads.txt specification.

IDFA

The identifier for advertising (IDFA) is a device identifier assigned by Apple to a user’s iOS device.

ILRD

Impression-level revenue data (ILRD) enables publishers to process granular data. MoPub provides user ad revenue information associated with each impression, as well as information about which demand source was able to fill and show an ad. Publishers then have the flexibility to augment the impression event data with their own proprietary data, and to either process the data directly, or pass it to a third-party analytics provider. Learn more about ILRD here.

impression counting

Approach for counting impressions based on triggered events. MoPub’s counts an event as an impression when at least one pixel is on screen.

impressions

A performance metric, this is the number of times an ad shows on screen.

in-app advertising

Advertisements that appear within an app. In-app ads come in many formats, including banners, native ads, interstitials, and rewarded video ads.

in-app bidding

The mobile app version of header bidding, which enables app publishers to offer inventory to multiple ad networks and exchanges simultaneously in a unified auction, replacing the traditional waterfall setup. MoPub’s in-app bidding solution is called Advanced Bidding.

in-app purchasing

The purchase of products or services from within an app. Examples include in-game currency, virtual or real-world items, or subscriptions.

interstitial ad

An interstitial ad is a fullscreen static, video, or rich media ad that covers the interface of its host app. Interstitial ads are typically displayed at natural transition points in the flow of an app, such as between activities or during the pause between levels in a game. The ad is self-contained within its own window, not within the app’s layout.

invalid traffic (IVT)

Invalid traffic (IVT) is any activity that doesn’t come from a real user with genuine interest. It can include fraudulent impressions, clicks, or app downloads caused by faulty ad implementations.

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J

JavaScript (JS)

JavaScript is a programming language commonly used in web development. JavaScript code can be inserted anywhere within the HTML of a web page.

JavaScript tag, JS tag

The <script> tag is used to define a script (JavaScript). The <script> element either contains scripting statements, or it points to an external script file through the src attribute. Common uses for JavaScript are image manipulation, form validation, and dynamic changes of content. Although MoPub accepts JStag network mediation, we caution its usage. Learn more about these tags here.

JSON

JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) is a markup language that represents structured data in a way that is both human-readable and machine-readable. JSON is used primarily to transfer data between two machines, and is a popular alternative to XML.

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K

keyword

Keywords contain user- or app-level information that can be passed through the SDK for advanced targeting in line items. Learn more about them here.

Kotlin

Kotlin is a cross-platform, statically typed, general-purpose programming language with type inference. It interoperates fully with Java, is officially supported by Google for mobile development on Android, and is included as an alternative to the standard Java compiler.

KPI

Type of performance metric. Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) measure the success of a particular activity in a given context.

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L

line item

Line items enable publishers to create campaigns targeting specific ad units and ad sources. Line Items can be set at any priority level to allow publishers prioritize specific campaigns. Line items offer advanced targeting capabilities. Line item types include Marketplace, Guaranteed (usually for direct deals), Backfill and Network.

LTV

A user’s lifetime value (LTV) is the amount of revenue a user brings in over their entire time using the app.

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M

Marketplace

MoPub Marketplace is our real-time bidding (RTB) exchange, which gives publishers access to an additional revenue source through a competitive auction with complete transparency and control. MoPub’s Marketplace will only win if it is able to beat the highest performing ad network that has an available ad. Marketplace increases the quantity of potential bidders for your impressions, without having to include additional SDKs. Learn more here. In the MoPub UI, the Marketplace tab enables publishers to manage Marketplace settings.

MAU

Monthly average users (MAU) is the number of unique devices that create one or more ad requests, broken down by month (MoPub records all information in UTC time).

mediation stack

The list of demand sources included in a waterfall targeted to a specific ad unit. The ad networks in the stack are ranked by priority level first, then CPM (within that priority). Through the waterfall process, an ad request will “attempt,” or ask each demand source for an ad to serve, and continue down the waterfall until an impressions is served.

MoAnalytics

MoAnalytics is a data analytics tool reserved for managed publishers. Learn about it here.

mobile attribution

The process of tracking and crediting a partner, media source, or campaign with a conversion or specific user action.

MoPub report

MoPub reports track performance based on MoPub data and include Marketplace revenue. Find more information here.

MoPub Sample App

The MoPub Sample App is for anyone who has a stake in how a creative or tag functions in a MoPub-integrated app, or who wants to use a reference for implementation to troubleshoot possible MoPub-SDK integration issues. Find Android and iOS versions here and Unity here.

MRAID

Mobile Rich Media Ad Interface Definitions (MRAID) is a framework for mobile advertisers and publishers that allows rich media ad creatives to run across all compliant devices and applications. It is a standard developed by the Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB) in late 2011. MRAID is designed for publishers who want to do direct sales with more engaging ads as well as those who want to work with ad networks that support rich media creatives.

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N

native ad

A static or video ad that appears naturally within the app’s content. The ad experience follows the natural form and function of the app’s user experience. Check out MoPub’s Native Preview Tool to see how native ads can look in real apps.

network

An ad network connects advertisers to apps in order to serve ads. Networks do not bid in real time, with the exception of those who are participating in Advanced Bidding. Publishers can manage mediated networks in the Networks tab.

network allocation

This feature can be used to dictate the percentage of ad requests a network should receive daily.

network eCPM

The cost per thousand impressions for a network is the average CPM for a given network or network line item. In the MoPub UI, the Network eCPM is not a price floor; it is an indicator used to rank the order of the calls in the waterfall. The value should be updated regularly (manually or via Auto CPM) to reflect the average eCPM the network is paying for that ad unit. See also eCPM.

network mediation

Network mediation enables MoPub publishers to make ad requests to multiple ad networks to maximize revenue and increase fill rate. MoPub supports both server-side and client-side network mediation integrations. We encourage publishers to mediate networks included in the list of supported mediation partners.

network report

Network reports track performance data from the supported networks in this list, and include network revenue data. Note that this data is directly pulled from the network.

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O

optimization, optimizing

Actions taken in order to improve the performance of an ad unit, app, or account. The goal is usually to boost performance and reduce inefficiencies, such as latency.

order

An option to manage your inventory by creating line items. In MoPub, an order is a grouping of line items.

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P

playable ad

A rich media ad, typically for a gaming app, that allows a user to play a demo or understand the basic game mechanics within the ad itself.

PMP

A private marketplace (PMP) is a subset of a real-time bidding exchange with a limited set of advertisers and publishers who have agreed to exclusive terms. Buyers participating in the PMP are given the first look at participating publishers’ inventory before other demand sources, which may include ad networks and other demand partners on the open MoPub Marketplace.

price floor

Minimum bid that you are willing to accept for the DSPs’ to access to your inventory. We recommend that you set your Marketplace price floors to be lower than your lowest network CPM to maximize Marketplace competition and yield.

priority

System to prioritize demand source by ranked groups within the waterfall. There are 16 priorities within the MoPub waterfall, with 1 being the highest and 16, the lowest. If the inventory isn’t sold in the first priority sent, it will failover to the following priority until it fills.

privacy policy

A privacy policy is a statement or a legal document that discloses some or all of the ways a party gathers, uses, discloses, and manages a customer’s or client’s data. It fulfills a legal requirement to protect a customer’s or client’s privacy. MoPub requires publishers to have a published Privacy Policy in your app page to obtain Marketplace approval. Find more information in our Supply-Side Partner Policies.

ProGuard

ProGuard is a free Java class file shrinker, optimizer, obfuscator, and preverifier. It detects and removes unused classes, fields, methods, and attributes. It optimizes bytecode and removes unused instructions. You can use it to integrate MoPub. Learn more here.

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R

refresh rate

The refresh rate interval is the number of seconds an ad will display on screen before a subsequent ad request is made for a new ad. For example, if you set a refresh interval of 30 seconds, the next ad request will occur 30 seconds later.

report

Performance data consolidated in offline spreadsheets.

retention

The length of time or the number of days a user stays active with an app.

revenue

Total amount of earnings generated from in-app advertising activity. Recommendation: Use offline reports, where data has been consolidated, to track your revenue.

rewarded video ad

An ad format in which a user is rewarded after successful completion of a video ad. The reward is typically in-game virtual currency (gold, coins, power-ups, extra lives, etc.).

ROAS

Return on ad spend (ROAS) is the ratio of revenue generated to advertising spend. Used to help measure the efficiency of an ad campaign.

ROI

Return on investment (ROI) is the ratio of revenue generated to full campaign expenses. This can include labor costs.

RTB

With real-time bidding (RTB), in-app inventory is bought and sold in a live auction system where advertisers bid on each impression in real time the moment you request an ad.

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S

sample app

The MoPub Sample App is for anyone who has a stake in how a creative or tag functions in a MoPub-integrated app, or who wants to use a reference for implementation to troubleshoot possible MoPub-SDK integration issues. Find Android and iOS versions here and Unity here.

SDK

The MoPub software development kit (SDK) contains the necessary tools to enable monetization of apps. Refer to our instructions for integrating the Android SDK, the iOS SDK, and the Unity Plugin.

singleton

The singleton method enables you to show the same ad impression as users navigate through various screens of your app. It involves creating an object with the MoPub ad view, allocating the object to the active view, and then de-allocating it and reallocating it to each view as the user navigates within the app. Find more information in our documentation.

SSP

Supply-side platforms (SSPs) provide a way for publishers to sell their inventory on exchanges;
they’re the inverse of DSPs. MoPub is an SSP.

supported network

A MoPub-supported network is a network with a supported SDK integration. Review the list of supported networks here. Make sure to work with the supported instance when integrating a network included in the list.

Swift

Swift is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm, compiled programming language developed by Apple Inc. for iOS, macOS, watchOS, tvOS, Linux, and z/OS. Swift is designed to work with Apple’s Cocoa and Cocoa Touch frameworks and the large body of existing Objective-C code written for Apple products.

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T

traffic

App traffic is the amount of data sent and received by users in the app. App traffic is measured through app activity, such as opening the app, number of sessions, session duration, and ad requests.

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U

UA

User acquisition (UA) is the process of gaining more users for an app via organic methods, such as app store optimization (ASO), paid advertising efforts, or both.

UI

User interface provided by MoPub for accessing the MoPub Services.

uniques

The number of unique devices that create one or more ad requests. Note that this figure doesn’t include ‘Do Not Track’ users.

Unity

Unity is a cross-platform real-time engine developed by Unity Technologies. It is an OS X-exclusive game engine.

user engagement

The degree to which users interact with an app. This can be analyzed through different metrics, including daily active users (DAU), average session length, etc.

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V

valid store URL

A valid store Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is a complete web address used to find a particular app page in the app store. MoPub requires publishers to have a valid store URL (for published apps) to obtain Marketplace approval. Find more information on Marketplace approval here.

VAST

Video Ad Serving Template (VAST) is a specification released by the Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB) that sets a standard for communication requirements between ad servers and video players. It is a data structure declared using XML. Find more information on how to set up Direct VAST campaigns on MoPub here.

viewability

Viewability tracks the impressions seen by users. Learn more about how MoPub supports viewability on Android and iOS.

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W

waterfall

System to organize demand source calls in order to fill an ad unit’s inventory. Through the waterfall process, an ad request attempts, or asks, each demand source for an ad to serve, and continues down the waterfall until an impression is served.

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X

XCode

The integrated development environment (IDE) from Apple that is used to create, compile, and test Mac OS X and iOS (iPhone/iPad/iPod) applications. Refer to our instructions for integrating MoPub through XCode.

XML

Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that represents structured data in a way that is both human-readable and machine-readable. A popular alternative to JSON, XML is used primarily to transfer data between two machines.

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Last updated March 30, 2020

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